Sunday, January 12, 2020
Nobody could forecast that a low budget movie with 12 different actors performing in one single room could affect in such a remarkable degree several sciences like law, business, psychology etc. The movie, based on the scenario that a 12 member jury group is about to decide through a certain procedure if a young boy is going to face the death penalty or not, can be linked with many theories referring to leadership or group/team work. Influenced by the Group Effectiveness Model of Schwarz (2002), the structure of the group along with the context and the process are vital for its effectiveness (Eirini Flouri & Yiannis Fitsakis 2007).In the first part of the film when the stage of forming, as it is claimed by the TuckmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Team Model, occurs, we notice the main characteristics of this group(David A. Buchanan & Andrej Huczynski, 2010). The group consists of 12 male middle aged white men probably coming from the middle class. Even from this first impression, admiring the effort of the film to achieve diversity, signs of prejudice appear. Specifically, the fact that all of them are men and moreover white men represents main biases of that period.Additionally, as it is mentioned to SheldonÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory about the biases, the somatotype of each person declares in a certain way its character and this can be noticed by the selection of the characters and their match with the roles (Big guy is the tough one, smaller and thinner is the most innocuous, the handsome is the sensible and sensitive one etc. ) (David A. Buchanan & Andrej Huczynski, 2010). Despite the fact that the movie is trying to accuse such biases (which will be underlined later) certain ways of projection of that period could not be avoided.This is one of the reasons why in the remake of the film in 1997 black actors participated as well and later there even women were introduced in the team for certain theatrical versions. (Eirini Flouri & Yiannis Fitsakis 2007). The existence of a Ã¢â¬Å"one-offÃ ¢â¬ situation like this in the movie leaves space for less inhibition for conflicts. Moreover, specific factors like the size, the external-internal environment and the definition of the process play a crucial role in the structure of the group.Obviously, the size of this group is 12, but the question is: why so many? The reason is that by having a greater number of juries the system of justice achieves higher levels of democracy with less possibilities of getting unfair decisions combining the memory, the knowledge and the experience of each member and eliminates any prejudiced behaviors. On the other hand as Social Impact Theory mentions the more members there are, the less responsibility they feel (Latane and Nida, 1980).In the external environment we could enclose the time of the procedure, which is unlimited at first but with a deadline coming up afterwards, and the conditions of the place of action, which is characterized by the humidity and the high summer temperatures, th e broken air-conditioning, the unavailability of space. Such details could become the cause of stress, aggressiveness and as it was shown desire for fast result (just finish the procedure). In the internal environment issues like experience of previous similar situations, cultures, personalities, knowledge, mood, health, personal schedule and specialization could affect the result.Ending, a matter of significant importance is the definition of the procedure. In this case, we observe that after the release of the 2 alternatives there are 12 juries left. The juries have to decide if the boy is guilty or not guilty but there must be a full agreement (12 to 0) in each case; A democratic method which proves the importance of the situation. Alternatively, if they cannot reach an agreement they can decide a hung jury and then another trial will take place with different juries this time.The role of the foreman is usually for the most experienced person in this field or the first jury or fo r anyone who claims the desire and gets accepted by all. In the movie, juror1 supports this role setting the basic norms of the procedure. It is worth mentioning that nowadays, in the selection of the juries there is a specific procedure that is called Ã¢â¬Å"Voir DireÃ¢â¬ procedure that clarifies the capability of the juries (Michael T. Nietzelt and Ronald C. Dillehayt 1982). Undoubtedly, the conviction of the biases of any kind is one of the main objects of this film. Primarily, in the first scheme, the judge seems really ninterested about the outcome and he seems to be sure about the result. The Halo Effect is Ã¢â¬Å"a judgment based on a single striking characteristicÃ¢â¬ and is being remarked in many cases during the film (Edward Thorndike, 1920). Moving to the main part of the film and the central procedure we can emphasize on the juror3 and juror10 who are the main representatives of such prejudiced behaviors. Both of them were trying to fill the gaps of their knowledge using selective attention in certain facts and their personal experience (Ã¢â¬Å"Principle of closureÃ¢â¬ by Max Wertheimer 1880-1943).Everyone has his stereotypes and if we imagine stereotypes as pictures in our head, jurors 3 and 10 have the image of a dangerous criminal for the defendant, raised to act in certain ways (Lippmann, 1922). More specifically, juror3 expresses, from his first lines in the film, his perception against the young boy (Ã¢â¬Å"I Ã¢â¬Ëd slap those kids beforeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ). But as the movie goes on, he expresses again and again his personal beliefs connecting them with his personal disappointment from his own son (Ã¢â¬Å" itÃ¢â¬â¢s these kids they are these dayÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"I used to call my father SirÃ¢â¬ ).Even more he presents his cultural stereotype against the elderly (Ã¢â¬Å"How could he be positive about anything? Ã¢â¬ ) Eventually, juror3 stands alone with his perceptions, believing in the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s guiltiness and through a psycholo gical outburst admits that all his statements were based on biases. Similarly, juror10 uses his own belief to create his racial prejudice against the defendant (Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬Ëve expected thatÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"You know what we are dealing withÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ) as well as his past experiences (Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve lived with themÃ¢â¬ ¦ they are born liarsÃ¢â¬ ).Adding to this, juror10 weights the value of the young boy less than the cost of a trial. Finally, his Ã¢â¬Å"explosionÃ¢â¬ made the apocalypse of his real personality and the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s mechanism accused his behavior through a visual isolation and oral prohibition. The existence of biases in each group can create an unpleasant internal environment for each member and be the reason of conflicts. The productivity or the effectiveness of the group is in danger if such behaviors are being tolerated. Apart from the complexity which is created there is also a matter of fairness of the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s function.As the movie flows, the influence of the group to each individual separately is obvious but a vice versa phenomenon is noticed as well. In this part, the different roles of the jurors and their influence on each other through the communication style of all-channel are being presented, as well as with some strategies followed by the leader-juror8. One thing that is common for most of the jurors is that they have common BATNA(Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement) and this is the hung jury.However, this is not the case for jury8 claims that his only purpose is the delivery of the justice (Fisher and Uri, 1981). Starting with juror1 we can notice signs of leadership in the early beginning but he ends up being more like a manager, organizing the procedure. Excluding the moment he reaches his breaking point and suggests if anyone would like to take his place, juror1is the one who sets up the norms, accepts propositions, guides the conversation and the voting procedure, avoids conflicts and respects pr ivileges keeping a democratic way of thinking.Being the foreman can be characterized as the Ã¢â¬Å"co-ordinatorÃ¢â¬ (BeldinÃ¢â¬â¢s Team Role Theory 1996, 2007). Many of the jurors (2, 5, 6, 7, 11, and 12) seem to have low self-esteem not only because of their character but also because of the number of the team that forces them to get lost in the crowd or just finish the procedure and leave (Ã¢â¬Å"I just think he is guiltyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Can I pass? Ã¢â¬ , etc) This is obvious from the first vote where only 5 of the 11 votes come directly and the rest are raised slowly just to avoid being pointed out.They are becoming followers(2, 5, 6 and 11) or entertainers (7) or just dreamers (12). Of course most of them are open to hear more and accept different opinions (2, 5, and 7). The rest just do not care so much about the result and these Ã¢â¬Å"free ridersÃ¢â¬ , as Frohlich and Oppenheimer called them in 1970, are the proof that social loafing (or Ringelmann Effect) is a commo n phenomenon in big teams. The role of juror9 has a vital meaning for the outcome because he takes part in all the breaking points of the process.Firstly, he is the first supporter of juror8, secondly it is him who explains the old witnessÃ¢â¬â¢s psychology (Ã¢â¬Å"AttentionÃ¢â¬ ) and lastly he is the fire starter for the fall of the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s testimony. The main opponents to the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s exoneration are jurors 3, 4 and 10. As was mentioned previously jurors 3 and 10 are mostly based on biases and stereotypes for children from slums. They are all concentrated on general facts and obvious details. The extensive use of loud voice is frequently the main argument of jurors 3 and 10, which could never strengthen their position.Alternatively, juror4 is using his logic and cleverness to support his facts and admits his fault proving his maturity, once he is convinced. Focusing on juror8 we can claim that he owns the position of the leader as his bargaining power is unique. Max Weber (1947) claimed that Ã¢â¬Å"bargaining power is the ability someone has to achieve his goals no matter of the resistance he facesÃ¢â¬ . Juror8 follows a series of strategies in order to be flexible and adapt to the needs of each occasion. In the beginning, as it is shown from Jo-HariÃ¢â¬â¢s Window, everyone has a bigger unknown-black side, so juror8 wants to get information as an input.Eventually, he adopts the strategy of a listener in order to get knowledge from the others without revealing himself. Afterwards, in the first vote he stays neutral mentioning his points aiming to make some of the rest see the facts from a different angle avoiding any conflict. The brainstorming procedure just began. In order to wake up their consciousness he uses specific words like Ã¢â¬Å"maybeÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"supposingÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"possibleÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"assumeÃ¢â¬ . In the main part he listens carefully and argues with all the elements one by one. There is also an extensive use of rhetorical questions and irony just to make his point clear.The first action scheme is when he places the similar knife on the table. The leader breaks the law in order to prove his point. He becomes more active for the first time and gets the whole team upset. Eventually, he creates the first doubts. At this specific time he calls for a new vote. Apparently, the timing is not random. Probably he recognizes some voices like his and decides that it is time to set up a coalition strategy. He needs just one vote which will strengthen amazingly his arguments and he gets it.The fact that he uses his emotional intelligence to point out his views, while he realizes that some other jurors are playing, proves once again his leading abilities. The next step is to create personal relations with some of the jurors. So, he finds the weakest of the group who are about to change side and ask for their opinions. It is not by accident that these jurors were mainly followers until this time. Having established these connections, he uses logic and science as well as the experience and the knowledge of the group in order to persuade the others.As soon as he realizes that one of his main opponents (juror3) loses his self-control, juror8 becomes aggressive and pushes him to the limits using the technique of the irony to apocalypse the existence of his personal prejudice against the defendant. After completing his task, he shows his sympathetic character and supports the worried opponent. Based on Moscovici (1976) and his 5 Aspects juror8 is loyal to his beliefs(Consistency), responsible for his acts(Autonomy), flexible whenever it is appropriate(Rigidity), risky in the first secret vote(Investment) and willing to bring justice(Fairness).The impact of this movie in our modern times is initially proved by the fact that after so many years it is still being taught in courses not only in Law schools but also in Business and Psychology schools. Definitions like brainstorming, social lo afing, diversity, team-working, biases and preconceptions, attribution, personality, leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities, democratic voting and many others are part of any organization nowadays. This movie is the omen for the evolutionary development of a team structure, a team-workerÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and a leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics. References Atkinson G. 1990 Ã¢â¬Å"Negotiate the best dealÃ¢â¬ Director Books, Cambridge Barkan, Steven E. , & Steven Cohn, 1994, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËRacial Prejudice and Support for the Death Penalty by WhitesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ in Ã¢â¬Å"Journal of Research in Crime and DelinquencyÃ¢â¬ pp. 202Ã¢â¬â209 Buchanan A. David & Huczynski A. Andrej, 2010, Ã¢â¬Å"Organizational BehaviourÃ¢â¬ , seventh edition, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow Cialdini R. B. , 1993 Ã¢â¬Å"The psychology of persuasionÃ¢â¬ , Quill William Morrow, New York Ellsworth C. Phoebe, 1989, Ã¢â¬Å"Are Twelve Heads Better Than One? Ã¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"Law and Contemporary ProblemsÃ¢â¬ , Duke University School of Law Fisher R. & Ury W. 1981 Ã¢â¬Å"Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without gining inÃ¢â¬ Penguin, New York Flouri Eirini & Fitsakis Yiannis, Oct 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"Minority Matters: 12 Angry Men as a Case study of a successful Negotiation against the oddsÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"Negotitation JournalÃ¢â¬ pp. 449-461 Hackley Susan, 2007 Ã¢â¬Å"One Reasonable and Inquiring Man:12 Angry Men as a Negotiation-Teaching ToolÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"Negotiation JournalÃ¢â¬ pp. 463-468 Hall & M. Eisenstein (Eds. ), 1980, Ã¢â¬Å"Voir Dire and jury selectionÃ¢â¬ , Clark. B. M. , in Ã¢â¬Å"Criminal Defense TechniquesÃ¢â¬ , New York: Mathew Bender Hay B. L. 2007 Ã¢â¬Å"Fiftieth anniversary 12 Angry MenÃ¢â¬ Kent-Law Review 82(3) Chicago Heuer L. Penrodt St. , Sep. 1988, Ã¢â¬Å"Increasing Jurors' Participation in Trials A Field Experiment with Jury Notetaking and Question AskingÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"Law and Human BehaviourÃ¢â¬ Vol. 12 No. 3 Janis I. , 1972 Ã¢â¬Å"Victims of groupthinkÃ¢â¬ MA: Houghton Mifflin, Oxford Kaplan M. , Jones & Christopher S. , 2003 Ã¢â¬Å"The Effects of Racially Stereotypical Crimes on Juror Decision-Making and Information Ã¢â¬âProcessing StrategiesÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"Basic and Applied Social PsychologyÃ¢â¬ pp. 1-13 Kew J. & Stredwick J. , 2010, Ã¢â¬Å"Human Resource Management in a business contextÃ¢â¬ , CIPD, London Martin R. , 1992 Ã¢â¬Å"Bargaining PowerÃ¢â¬ Clarendon Press, OxfordMoscovici S. , 1976 Ã¢â¬Å"Social influence and social changeÃ¢â¬ Academic, London Nietzelt T. Michael & Dillehayt C. Ronald, 1982, Ã¢â¬Å"The Effects of Variations in Voir Dire Procedures in Capital Murder TrialsÃ¢â¬ , in Ã¢â¬Å"Law and Human BehaviourÃ¢â¬ Vol. 6 No. 1 Rojot J. , 1991 Ã¢â¬Å"Negotiatation: From theory to practiceÃ¢â¬ Macmillan, London Scheepers, Daan, et al, 2006, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËDiversity in In-Group Bias: Structural Factors, Situational Features, and Social Functions,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ in Ã¢â¬Å"Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyÃ¢â¬ pp. 944Ã¢â¬â960 Weber M. , 1947 The theory of social and economic organizationÃ¢â¬ Oxford University Press, New York
Saturday, January 4, 2020
One definition of death is the the complete and permanent cessation of all vital functions in a living creature, the end if life. All philosophers agree that our earthly life in our physical form will end; however philosophers disagree on the meaning of end of life as many people agree on death as the end of our existence however while others argue that we continue in some form after death. Many ideas relating to our existence after death include; the continuation of our genes thought our descendants, immortality of the soul, resurrection of the body, reincarnation and the idea that we live on in memories of others. Many religious beliefs are based on the idea that humans possess a soul or spirit which exists independently of the body.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This survival would involve the resurrection of the body. Known as the Recreation Theory; this is the belief that the whole body continues after death. John Hick argued that in certain circumstances the dead can exist afte r death. If an exact replica of them were to appear complete with memories and characteristics. As God is all powerful this recreation of the dead is totally possible although death can destroy us God can recreate us. St Paul also talks about resurrection and about how the body will be raised and transformed into something better, something spiritual i.e. seed into plant. Identity the same but outcome is different. A problem raised with Hicks replica theory is a basic fundamental question. Is the same I that existed before death the same as the I in the replica, in the afterlife. Hick tried to solve the problem by putting forward hypothetical story of John Smith who lived in USA. One day, his friends watched as he disappeared without a trace. At the same moment of his disappearance a replica of Smith appeared in India exactly similar in both physical and mental characteristics to the person who disappeared in UAS. Concluding that John Smith died and God re-created John Smith in the next world and this re-created John Smith was the same person. Vardy challenges Hick. Would John Smith be the same person? Hick argues that he would if he thought ofShow MoreRelatedOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pagesscholarly debates on modernism and postmodernism, and provides an advanced introduction to the heterogeneous study of organizations, including chapters on phenomenology, critical theory and psychoanalysis. Like all good textbooks, the book is accessible, well researched and readers are encouraged to view chapters as a starting point for getting to grips with the field of organization theory. Dr Martin Brigham, Lancaster University, UK McAuley et al. provide a highly readable account of ideas, perspectivesRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pages and the relevant page numbers (but not in any way that suggests that the book Logical Reasoning or its author endorse you or your use of the work). (2) Noncommercial You may not use this work for commercial purposes (for example, by inserting passages into a book that is sold to students). (3) No Derivative Works You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work. An earlier version of the book was published by Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California USA in 1993 with ISBN numberRead MoreThe Birth of Civilization18947 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pagesstatue from about 2500 B.C.E. depicts a king or a priest from Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus valley in present-day Pakistan. Does this figure seem to emphasize the features of a particular person or the attributes of a particular role? 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Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designationsRead MoreManagement Control Systems Pdf115000 Words Ã |Ã 460 PagesJanuary 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means Ã¢â¬â electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise Ã¢â¬â without prior permission in writing from Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India. Fo ISBN 81-7881-995-3 Ref. 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I hope, though, that you can do me a favor as you go through the manuscript. If you find any mistakes - mathematical or grammatical - could you please let me know? It would help me ensure that the typos do not find their way into the final version. Chapter
Friday, December 27, 2019
Rebel Without a Clue in UpdikeÃ¢â¬â¢s A P Adults always stress that it is important to make a good first impression. That is what Sammy was trying to accomplish in John UpdikeÃ¢â¬â¢s A P. Although some people believe that Sammy is a hero for standing up for his beliefs when he quit, there is conclusive evidence that he quit in an attempt to impress a girl he was obviously attracted to, Queenie. We know he is attracted to Queenie because he goes to great lengths to tell us what she looks like, what her mannerisms are, and the way that the other girls follow her. For example, he says, She was the Queen. She kind of led them, the other two peeking around and making their shoulders round (1026). This simple quote shows thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I mean, it was more than pretty (1026). Someone who is attracted to someone else would usually notice something as striking as that. He continued with, She held her head so high her neck, coming out of those white shoulders, looked kind of stretched, but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mind. The longer her neck was, the more of her there was (1026). All of the above examples demonstrate how sexually interested Sammy is in Queenie, but this one is the clincher: Still with that prim look she lifts a folded dollar bill out of the hollow at the center of her nubbled pink top. The jar went heavy in my hand (1028). Sammy uses LengelÃ¢â¬â¢s reprimand to bring attention to himself. He was acting as a boy trying to defend his girlfriend. Sammy says, The girls, and whoÃ¢â¬â¢d blame them, are in a hurry to get out, so I say Ã¢â¬ËI quitÃ¢â¬â¢ to Lengel quick enough for them to hear, hoping theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll stop and watch me, their unsuspected hero. This is the most obvious attempt that Sammy makes to impress the girls. However, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work. The girls leave before Sammy can even get outside. SammyÃ¢â¬â¢s family says that that is the sad part of the story. Sammy also says, and my stomach kind of fell as I felt how hard the world was going to be to me hereafter (1030). Now, is this the sort of thing that someone would say after standing up for something they believe in? I should say not! Most people
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins is about a sixteen year old girl named Katniss and how she needs to fight for her life. The Hunger Games takes place in an arena in the Capitol of Panem. There are 24 tributes, two from each District. The games were created to punish the Twelve Districts for trying to create an uprising against the Capitol. Suzanne Collins book could be compared to the United States and how people obsess with the way they look, discrimination is still occurring, and how the government has abused the power it has over the people. The people in the Capitol of Panem like to look their best, just like the people in the United States like to buy brand named clothes to look their best in. The people in the Capitol arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the only ones that have to look nice their food looks so perfectly made. When Katniss is describing the food it sounds as if itÃ¢â¬â¢s well arranged (65). Even food plays a part in how the people from the Capitol are obsessed with aesthetics. Pe ople in the United States are also obsessed how food looks because there is people that post food on their social media before eating. Suzanne Collins seems to understand how aesthetics plays a major role in the real world because in her book she captures it very well. There are television shows and magazines that celebrities are being judged because of what they wear, whether they are going to the park or to an awards show. The celebrities are judged on their outfit or makeup. Just like in The Hunger GamesShow MoreRelatedThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins3246 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesStudy Unit The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins and Steven GallowayÃ¢â¬â¢s The Cellist of Sarajevo demonstrates the way in which people are affected by war, and a brutal dictatorship. The authors illustrates the main purpose for writing their novel through the use of imagery, characterization, foreshadowing, flashback, similes, and symbolism. Suzanne Collins and Steven Galloway use imagery and characterization to vividly describe the effects and outcomes of war and dictatorship. Suzanne Collins portrays,Read MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe movie or the book the Hunger Games came out with a bang when it first hit theaters or the shelves of the bookstores. It was dubbed as one of the best films or books to read, interestingly enough it was a remake of the stories or myths most people heard when they were younger, but modernized and turned into a collage of all the best roman and Greek stories. Suzanne Collins brilliantly combined the Greek and Roman influences to make the movie/book unforgettable. By using stories from the romansRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collin899 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Suzanne CollinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hunger GamesÃ¢â¬ seems to be about a dystopian society struggle to become a utopia. However, when the readers read further in to the book or watches the movie one can see that is about all the characters that make use human. As human, we feel the need to build an ethical framework based on our needs for authority rather than tradition. The Capitol in the Hunger Games exploits human needs to keep authority in place. After rising seas and poverty consumed much of the land, the CapitolRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesemotional atmosphere within a dystopian state, there exists an absence of feeling which competes for dominance. Suzanne CollinsÃ¢â¬â¢ demonstrates this competing apathetic mood in her novel, The Hunger Games, through the citizens of the divided dystopia of Panem. This essay will analyze the origins and influence of apathy on a people and an individual, in both a political and personal sense. CollinsÃ¢â¬â¢ main argument, that citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ facing governmental oppression can either become compliant with apathy, or, insteadRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins854 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn a place where poverty is prevalent and a country is ruled b y a tyrannical dictator is it possible for an individual to trust others when their own life is always at stake? In the book The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins, the main character Katniss Everdeen is a survivor. In the novel she is put into an arena to compete against twenty-three other tributes to the death. This is not the only time during which she has to fend for herself; at home she had to care for her family and keep them aliveRead MoreThe Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins710 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢The hunger gamesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ is a novel written by Suzanne Collins, published in 2008. The genre of the book is thriller/survival, and is written over 27 chapters with 454 pages. In this analysis, I will tell you about how the main character Katniss changes through the novel, and tell you a little about the central characters that plays an important role for her. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢The Hunger GamesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, is set in the future in the country Panem, and is about the sixteen-year-old girl, Katniss Everdeen. Panem is divided intoRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins3514 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesThe Hunger Games is a science fiction, dystopian post-apocalyptic series that takes place in a futuristic North American nation called Panem. The film series is based on the novel series of the same title written by Suzanne Collins. Many who watch the films view them as an action-packed adventure series, but The Hunger Games, like many other dystopian films, feature social and political subjects that relate back to past and present culture. Dystopian films like the Hunger Games provide messages,Read MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMy first text is The Hunger Games which is written by Suzanne Collins and it was written in September 14 2008; was set in the future, around the year 2087. My second text which is 1984 , which is written by George Orwell and was written on Wednesday June 8 1949 and it was set in 1948. There are many themes in the book hunger games such as Ã¢â¬Ëthe inequality between rich and poorÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ësuffering as environmentÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëthe importance of appearancesÃ¢â¬â¢. In 1984 there is also many themes portrayed such as Ã¢â¬ËtheRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins2436 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Hunger Games is a science fiction and adventure film, based on the novel written by Suzanne Collins, which explores concepts of Marxism and numerous aspects of its principles through the dystopian world of Panem. The Hunger Games follows Marxist theories on bourgeoisie and proletariat class structure as well as capitalist production and the distribution of good. Thelma and Louise, a 1991 film directed by Ridley Scott, is often referred to by critics as Ã¢â¬Å"the ultimate feminist filmÃ¢â¬ . This filmRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1237 Wo rds Ã |Ã 5 PagesImagine you and your family suddenly have to move from Salt Lake City UT all the way toÃ¢â¬ ¦ Antarctica! Of course it isn t realistic for someone to live in Antarctica, but then again, The Hunger Games isn t that much different. Picture you are moving to Antarctica, away from people, friends, extended family, warmth, life, entertainment, happiness! You finally arrive to your isolated, barren planes of snow and ice for a home and realize, BAM! Where is religion in your life? Where will you go for church
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about theCounselling Theory. Answer: Gestalt Therapy and Application of the Therapy In the 1940s, Fritz Perls, developed a form of psychotherapy, known as Gestalt therapy. This theory has been derived from the Gestalt school of thought (Gregory, 2014).This theory is guided by the relational principle, which states that an individual is a person, and their situation could be well understood in their present situation. The key factor to this theory is self-awareness which helps the patient to have their personal growth and help in developing their potential (Nevis, 2014).This theory says that self-awareness, which is person's strength could get obstructed by pessimistic thoughts and behaviour, and this leaves the person unhappy and dissatisfied. The aim of every gestalt counsellor in this theory is to promote self-awareness, which is non-judgmental in nature, and it enables a person to have a particular perspective in his or her life. They also help the patient to have insights into their problems and find out the solution as how they can solve their present problem a nd be optimistic in life (Evans Gilbert, 2015). In this essay, we shall utilize the Gestalt theory approach in analysing the case study and applying it to the given case study based on its application and relevant theories. According to Wollants (2012), gestalt therapy has an existential approach, as its supporting assumption is that people must find their own way in life and must accept individual accountability for their life experiences. Hence, in order to understand the goal of responsiveness, it is necessary to understand the key principles on which the gestalt approach is based (Nevis, 2014). These are as follows: contact, resistance of contact, layers of neurosis, formulation of gestalt, impasse, unfinished business, awareness and present alertness. Contact is regarded as the heart of the gestalt approach. This means interaction with the environment and other people, however, at the time same maintaining individuality (Staemmler, 2016). Contact between individuals can be made by seeing, touching, smelling, moving or speaking. A person who lacks the aptitude to make contact with the environment can be influenced by many boundaries that exist around him. The boundaries may include value, expressive and exposure boundaries. The layers of neurosis can be compared to the peeling of an onion that involves unfolding of every layer of personality enabling a person to achieve a sense of accomplishment by discovering new dimensions of his personality (Zinker, 2013). Impasse refers to the point when an individual comes to a point where he wants to makes changes in his life but is unable to do so. A counsellor should make the individual stay within the experience of impasse so that he or she is able to make changes in his life by overcoming the factor of fear (Kepner, 2014). Other important principles of gestalt therapy include unfinished business, awareness and present awareness. The goal of gestalt therapy is to provide greater awareness to people so that they are able to cure their personality disorder. In this therapy, clients are told to increase their awareness by exploring more of what they are doing, feeling, thinking and interpreting. Additionally, it involves exploration of t he behaviours of the client and their relationships (Zinker, 2013). The explanation provided is, if as a counsellor, one has to understand Marion from the approach of Gestalt then the counsellor may have to identify the ways in which she has felt disassociated with her family. Marion has often been complaining of feeling low these days since the time her last child left. She has been finding it difficult to focus on her life right now and she often asks questions to herself as to whether she really made the right choices in life or not. In short, she cannot relate to her present life. The focus of this approach is on the client counsellor relationship and not on techniques and interpretations (Crocker, 2013). The counsellor relies more on experiments and hence Marion can be helped by focusing on what is happening within their body and lays importance on what they feel and how she feels. The counsellor may focus on how Marion feels about her life and her present situation, may increase the level of awareness of Marion, and focus on body messages, avoi dance, and blockage of awareness. A counsellor has to focus on the voice that is used by Marion for explaining her present life issues; this helps the counsellor to be able to identify on what level is the client less motivated. For example, if the client suddenly looks very sad despite relaying his thoughts of anger to the counsellor, the counsellor may become attentive about his feelings of sadness. However, a counsellor should avoid interpretation, intellectualizing and offering a cure straightaway (Roney Trick, 2003). The description of the role of a gestalt counsellor is, to make the client feel important about his survival. In the case of Marion, the counsellor has to make her feel that she has not taken wrong decisions in her life and that she has utilized her life to the fullest of her survival (Polster Polster, 2013). Upbringing of children is not an easy task and this is what she has done best in her life that is brought up the kids in a nice and respectable manner. The counsellor has to create such an atmosphere in which the client is able to explore and identify their thoughts, feelings and perceptions so that they find it easier to relate to the process of dialogue (Barber, 2006). Similarly, in the same way Marion should also be presented in an environment where she feels easier to relent her perceptions, feelings and thoughts. This shall help Marion to increase self-awareness and self-consciousness. A counsellor has to ensure that their clients stay focused on the present situation inst ead of diverting to some other situation or scenario. In the same way, the counsellor will have to keep Marion focused on the present situation and not diverting to some other topic or issue (Hochberg, 2014). Additionally, the counsellor also has to show respect to the problems of Marion. Marion should not feel that the counsellor is not addressing her problems appropriately. Hence, respect and empathy plays a very important factor when a client is in need of counselling from the counsellor. The psychotherapist should not be judgmental about the situation of Marion. He or she can only provide his prescription on the prevailing condition instead of telling the client what is right or wrong. A strong fiduciary relationship exists between a client and the psychotherapist. The counsellor all throughout the period of counselling should maintain the respect and dignity. The counsellor should show genuine respect and authenticity towards their patient. Few examples of dialogue that the counsellor may use during this process to ensure that the client remains focused are: Marion: [Looks Sad] Counsellor: what are you thinking of? Marion: I am sad Counsellor: stay with it! Marion: Feels sad and loses focus Counsellor: I see you losing focus and staying sad Marion: I want to do something in life that makes me feel better Counsellor: stay with the want! The above-mentioned dialogue is an example of focusing that is used by many gestalt therapists. This helps in the encouragement of client to focus on what they are experiencing right then. This helps in the encouragement of the client to develop their experience and helps them in understanding themselves in a far better way. In the example of dialogue given above, the client was told to focus on the stay with his or her feelings (Knights Koenig, 2013). Another example of a dialogue that the counsellor might take with his dealing with the client is. This method of dialogue focuses on making the approach of client in conveying the I message: Counsellor: Tell me something about your husband Marion: You may have a feeling of awe when you see him back from work Counsellor: Can you say that I feel awful the moment I see him back from work? Marion: I did Counsellor: yes, But I want you to focus on the use of first person and answer me in that way itself Marion: Ok! Many times gestalt therapist focus on the language that their clients use to speak about their problems as they feel that use of language is a way of expressing their thoughts and feelings. The gestalt therapist assess whether the language used by the gestalt therapist matches with the way he is feeling or not (Zinker, 2013). For example, by using words such as I You clients have the tendency of depersonalising their experience. The advantages of taking the Gestalt approach with Marion are that Marion will be able to increase her level of self-consciousness and self-awareness (Evans Gilbert, 2015). Increasing a persons self-esteem is a very important step towards acceptance of a person in their life. Marion will feel confident about herself and she will be able to lead her life well, based on the current scenario. The communication skills of Marion will be improved by applying the gestalt therapy. This shall help Marion and the counsellor to share a satisfying relationship with one another. The client is able to enhance her ability to escape negative feelings around her. Conclusively, Marion will be able to make good decisions in her life and not feel sad about the decisions that she has taken earlier. With the help of this therapy, she will be able increase her wisdom and identify her emotions appropriately so that she can connect with herself easily. The disadvantages that are related to the Gestalt approach is that, sometimes the therapist are very on the face regarding the issues that a client faces. A client like Marion may not like this kind of approach of the counsellor as they find such approach as casual and less involved. In real sense, the Gestalt therapy is a very intensive therapy and it may not be suitable for every patient. If the counsellor fails to set up a good relation with the clients, then this therapy may not work well. However, based on the analysis of the case study of Marion, gestalt shall be considered as the correct and best approach as there is a need for Marion to focus on life and feel better about current life situations (Jacobs, 2013). Based on the application of Gestalt therapy in the above-mentioned part of the essay, the familiarity can be evidenced with the help of existing relevant theory and literature related to this theory. The quintessence of this therapy is that it focuses on the here and now situations. According to Fogarty et al., (2016), past and future survival is related to the present scenario and in order to make the present meaningful the past needs to be settled appropriately. For future to be good and worthy of survival the present needs to be well settled and well spent. This is the essence of the gestalt therapy. However, present centeredness does not reject the significance of the past or the future; rather it only lays emphasis to those attributes of time in which feelings of nostalgia, resentment and regret is associated. Reality survives in the moment of living as a noble experience, if attended to; it can lead personal growth of individuals. Partiality of past or future destroy present as sociation, and lack of association with the present situation leads to flight to the future or to the past. The focus of the application of the gestalt therapy is on contact or association. This is inclusive of all the internal as well as the external factors that shall determine the working and analysis of the contact process. According to Fantz (2014), if a non-judgmental, dialogic and authentic client and therapist relationship is created then it may lead to a crucible change within the client. In order to exchange phenomenon, Gestalt therapist must bring a capacity and an interest to be present as a person in the psychoanalytic encounter, including of his inner world, sense of knowledge and information and skills. Hence, this therapy is a well grounded and a well developed theory with innumerable principles, concepts and methods along with expressive and expressive therapies. Staemmler (2016) conducted a research in which the therapist used the questionnaire method to identify the ways in which the application of gestalt therapy can be effective. The subjects of this research were people who remain fixed to their experiences and live in the anticipation of making their future better. After analysis of the research, it was found that the application of this research could be very helpful for those who have lost focus in life and find difficult to lead their present life in a stabilized manner. Hence, gestalt therapy is a phenomenological approach to counseling that focuses on the experience of the client in the present moment. The research of Staemmler (2016) provides evidence of integration of theory and practice of the gestalt therapy. Conclusively, it may be stated that gestalt therapy helps the clients to gain better awareness of their way of surviving in the world and how to make appropriate contact with the surroundings and the environment. In this essay, the principles, goals, aims and objectives of the therapy was discussed. Additionally, the essay also has identified the description and explanation of the relevant theory related to the gestalt therapy and evidence of integration of theory and practice is discussed in this essay. References: Barber, P. (2006).Becoming a practitioner researcher: a Gestalt approach to holistic inquiry. Middlesex University Press. Crocker, S. F. (2013).A well-lived life: Essays in Gestalt therapy. Taylor Francis. Evans, K., Gilbert, M. (2015). Gestalt Therapy.The Beginner's Guide to Counselling Psychotherapy, 195. Fantz, R. E. (2014).The dreamer and the dream: Essays and reflections on gestalt therapy. CRC Press. Fogarty, M., Bhar, S., Theiler, S., O'Shea, L. (2016). Creating a fidelity scale for gestalt therapy: Editor's erratum.Gestalt Journal of Australia and New Zealand,12(2), 109. Ginger, S. (2013). Dawn of Gestalt Therapy in France.Gestalt Therapy Around the World, 141-150. Hochberg, J. (2014). Organization and the Gestalt tradition.Handbook of perception,1, 179-210. Holzinger, B., Klsch, G., Saletu, B. (2015). Studies with lucid dreaming as addÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã on therapy to Gestalt therapy.Acta Neurologica Scandinavica,131(6), 355-363. Jacobs, G. Y. L. (2013). gestalt therapy.Current Psychotherapies, 299. Kepner, J. I. (2014).Body process: A gestalt approach to working with the body in psychotherapy. CRC Press. Knights Jr, W. A., Koenig, H. G. (2013).Pastoral counseling: A gestalt approach. Routledge. Lobb, M. S. (2013). Gestalt Therapy in Italy.Gestalt Therapy Around the World, 195-210. Nevis, E. C. (2014).Gestalt therapy: Perspectives and applications. CRC Press. Philippson, P. (2013). Gestalt Therapy in Britain.Gestalt Therapy Around the World, 113-126. Polster, E., Polster, M. (2013).From the radical center: The heart of Gestalt therapy. Taylor Francis. Roney, C. J., Trick, L. M. (2003). Grouping and gambling: a Gestalt approach to understanding the gambler's fallacy.Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie exprimentale,57(2), 69. Staemmler, F. M. (2016). Towards a theory of regressive processes in Gestalt therapy.Aggression, Time, and Understanding: Contributions to the Evolution of Gestalt Therapy, 235. Staemmler, F. M. (2016).Aggression, time, and understanding: Contributions to the evolution of Gestalt therapy. CRC Press. Stoehr, T. (2013).Here now next: Paul Goodman and the origins of Gestalt therapy. Taylor Francis. Wollants, G. (2012).Gestalt therapy: Therapy of the situation. Sage. Zinker, J. C. (2013).In search of good form: Gestalt therapy with couples and families. Taylor Francis.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
The campaign for inclusive education has been going on since MannÃ¢â¬â¢s proposition of Ã¢â¬Å"common schoolsÃ¢â¬ in the early 19th century. The current American society is more heterogeneous hence, the rationale for inclusionary education practices.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Personal position on Inclusionary practices specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, what is inclusive education? Inclusion refers to a community of learners, which involves a variety of races, cultures, religion, and level of learners in terms of different learning styles, strengths and weaknesses, physical and cognitive disabilities (Miller and Katz, p. 20). Inclusion thus creates a friendly learning environment that grants learners an experience of the heterogeneity in the society. Inclusion means educating students with disabilities in the regular classrooms as well as mixing students from different ethnic, reli gious and socio-economic backgrounds under one classroom (Hastings and Oakford, p. 87). This provides a free and appropriate public education system for all children irrespective of their race, culture, financial background, and capabilities. Hence, inclusion promises success for the disadvantaged child. Inclusionary practices provide a vehicle for realizing federal and state mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that require educators to grant all children an equal opportunity to education. Further, putting students with disabilities and other limiting factors in a regular classroom provides an opportunity for the less fortunate children to experience their full potential in an inclusive community and hence have a sense of belonging both in school and in the community. Inclusive education in practice is more complicated hence requires certain strategies for its success. For inclusive education to be successfu l, all parties must share the values of inclusion. This means that everyone involved in the education system must be aware of the importance of mixing all types of students irrespective of their race, culture, financial background, disabilities and so on in one classroom. This will go a long way towards ensuring that learners do not feel left out and discriminated against. Consequently, children will develop a sense of belonging and will be able to perform to their full potential academically.Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Children with cognitive limitations may think and reason at a much slower rate than ordinary children. Putting them in a class with students who have a higher IQ helps them in that their minds are triggered to work almost as fast as their counterparts do. Such children should be encouraged to be able to cope in the classroom. Hence, it is important for te achers and students to value these individuals and appreciate their differences (Hastings and Oakford, p. 90). As Shafik Abu-Tahir states, Ã¢â¬Å"Inclusion is recognizing that we are one even though we are not the sameÃ¢â¬ (Dattilo, p.26) One of the major barriers to inclusion is negative attitude. Students and teachers have a tendency of developing bad attitudes towards students who are not of their race, or because they come from a poor background. Teachers may not want to include them in school activities such as school trips and symposiums. This may make such students feel unwanted and left out and eventually develop a low self-esteem. As a result, such students may become rebellious, and register poor academic performance, anti-social behavior and other unruly traits. Therefore, it is imperative that teachers and students understand and appreciate each other regardless of their different backgrounds. In conclusion, inclusion is the solution to the problems our schools face d ue to increased social heterogeneity in the society. Once students from various backgrounds, including those with disabilities and other limitations develop a sense of belonging, their self-esteem will rise and their interest in school will be at its peak. Hence, students will be able to realize their full potential because of the equal opportunities granted to them. Works Cited Dattilo, John. Inclusive Leisure Services: Responding to the Rights of People with Disabilities. 2nd ed. State college: PA Venture Publishing, 2002. Print. Hastings, Richard, P. and Oakford, Suzanna. Student TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Children with Special Needs. Educational Psychology 23.1 (2003): 87-94. Print.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Personal position on Inclusionary practices specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Miller, Frederick and Katz, Judith. The Inclusion Breakthrough: Unleashing the Real P ower of Diversity. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2002. Print. This research paper on Personal position on Inclusionary practices was written and submitted by user Blaze Banks to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Bradley University - Acceptance Rate, Costs, and More Students applying to Bradley University need to submit an online application, high school transcripts, a personal statement, scores from the SAT or ACT, and a letter of recommendation. Bradley University has an acceptance rate of 70Ã percent. It is fairly selective, since about one-third of those applying will not get in. Students with good grades and test scores above average have a decent chance of being admitted, provided they meet the rest of the admissions requirements. Will You Get In? Calculate Your Chances of Getting InÃ with this free tool from Cappex Admissions Data (2016) Bradley University Acceptance Rate: 70%GPA, SAT and ACT Graph for Bradley AdmissionsTest Scores: 25th / 75th PercentileSAT Critical Reading: 480 / 620SAT Math: 480 / 620Ã¢â¬â¹What these SAT numbers meanMissouri Valley Conference SAT comparisonACT Composite: 22Ã / 28ACT English: 22 / 29ACT Math: 22 / 27Ã¢â¬â¹What these ACT numbers meanMissouri Valley Conference ACT comparison Bradley University Description Bradley Universitys 84-acre campus is located one mile from downtown Peoria, Illinois. Undergraduates can choose from over 100 programs spread across the universitys five colleges: Business Administration, Communications Fine Arts, Education Health Sciences, Engineering Technology, Liberal Arts Sciences. The university has wide-ranging academic strengths, and all five colleges are popular with undergraduates. Bradley has a 12 to 1Ã student/faculty ratioÃ and an average class size of 21 students. Students come from most states and 44 countries. On the athletic front, the Bradley Braves compete in the NCAA Division IÃ Missouri Valley Conference. Enrollment (2016) Total Enrollment: 5,598Ã (4,473 undergraduates)Gender Breakdown: 49% Male / 51% Female96% Full-time Costs (2016 - 17) Tuition and Fees: $32,120Books: $1,200 (why so much?)Room and Board: $10,010Other Expenses: $2,240Total Cost: $45,570 Bradley University Financial Aid (2015- 16) Percentage of New Students Receiving Aid: 99%Percentage of New Students Receiving Types of AidGrants: 98%Loans: 69%Average Amount of AidGrants: $17,367Loans: $7,580 Academic Programs Most Popular Majors:Ã Accounting, Business Administration, Civil Engineering, Elementary Education, English, Health Professions, Marketing, Mechanical Engineering, Nursing, Political Science, Psychology, Public RelationsWhat major is right for you?Ã Sign up to take the free My Careers and Majors Quiz at Cappex. Retention and Graduation Rates First Year Student Retention (full-time students): 87%4-Year Graduation Rate: 54%6-Year Graduation Rate: 74% Intercollegiate Athletic Programs Mens Sports:Ã Baseball, Soccer, Golf, Basketball, Track and Field, Soccer, Cross CountryWomens Sports:Ã Track and Field, Softball, Volleyball, Cross Country, Basketball, Golf Data Source National Center for Educational Statistics Bradley and the Common Application Bradley University uses the Common Application. These articles can help guide you: Common Application essay tips and samplesShort answer tips and samplesSupplemental essay tips and samples